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Letter: UMass hockey is great, but where are the students? -

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Cale Makar: UMass hockey’s crown jewel -

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Ames: If first four games are any indicator, this UMass hockey season could differ for the better -

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Josh Couturier looks to find where he fits within UMass lineup -

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The straw man fallacy: missing the point on Indigenous Peoples Day -

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Power to the Thin Mint: improve the Girls Scouts program -

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‘Blade Runner 2049’ has a lot of ideas that it fails to develop -

October 19, 2017

麻州大学教授谈到积极旁观者面对种族灭绝大屠杀时起的作用

Collegian记者: Matt Wallas
翻译:Alex Heroux
校对:Shayue Qi 祁沙玥

Ervin Staub, 麻州大学心理学的荣誉退休教授,童年时曾在纳粹占领的匈牙利居住。他在
纳粹控制下生活的经历促使了他对旁观者在面对种族灭绝时行为和影响的研究。

十月二日,Staub在麻州大学举办演讲。在演讲中,他讨论了旁观者在世界各地发生的事
件中起到的减轻或加重压迫的作用。

Staub的中心论点是:旁观者有两种,消极旁观者和积极旁观者。消极旁观者可能在看到
压迫的行为时保持沉默;积极旁观者则会为了帮助被压迫者而采取行为。
他在哈佛大学和麻州大学做了多年的相关研究,研究对象涉及儿童和成年人,研究内容多
样。通过研究, Staub发现积极旁观者的主要动机是“对他人福祉负责”。

“在某个特定的社群中,社群的标准可以发展为:每个人都知道他/她能得到帮助,他/她
也知道自己需要帮助别人。Staub说,”这个群体可以是学校,也可以是各种各样其他形式
的社群,但是这种发展必须从内部开始。“

Staub继续解释说,许多警察是消极旁观者,他们选择忠于那些犯下暴力行为的同事
。Staub认为在这种情况下,保持沉默可能导致强烈的内疚,从而最终导致精神疾病。
当被问及参加此次演讲最大的收获时,在慈悲建设和平中心工作的和平建设者Ginny
Morrison说:“旁观者可以通过很小的行动阻止事态的发展,这真的意义非凡。”

“我们必须尝试相互理解,”在麻州大学心理与脑科学系任教的教授Lisa Harvey说,“这是和
解与和平非常重要的一步,相互倾听,相互理解,同时采取行为,我们要为捍卫自己的信
仰做出努力。”
Staub进一步阐释了他为改善世界各地的压迫做出的努力以及如何培养他人成为积极旁观
者。除了去卢旺达这样的发生过严重压迫的国家,Staub也与警察合作,帮助他们变成积
极旁观者。同时,Staub也拜访了很多学校,帮助学生变成积极旁观者。
Staub在演讲中不断地强调,大家都应该为那些被压迫的人采取行动,阻止压迫的发生。
Staub说: “如果你看到别人受到伤害而不提供帮助,那么你不可能敞开心扉,并一直保持
开放的灵魂。”

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