October 20, 2014

Scrolling Headlines:

UMass student charged in connection with alleged involvement in racist vandalisms -

Monday, October 20, 2014

BREAKING: Police investigating death of 21-year-old female in McNamara Hall -

Monday, October 20, 2014

Protect Our Breasts runs Breast Cancer Awareness campaign -

Monday, October 20, 2014

Underclassmen lead UMass hockey to first victory of the season -

Monday, October 20, 2014

Super Smash Bros. 3DS: A classic revitalized -

Monday, October 20, 2014

Dear Chancellor: Improve the FAC -

Monday, October 20, 2014

UMass women’s soccer shut out by Rhode Island -

Monday, October 20, 2014

Students at UMass rally to show support for Hong Kong -

Monday, October 20, 2014

Duolingo makes learning a language easier -

Monday, October 20, 2014

UMass men’s swimming and diving falls to Army; women’s team gets revenge -

Monday, October 20, 2014

UMass field hockey gets back to .500 with win over BU Sunday -

Monday, October 20, 2014

‘Columbus Day’ demonstrates ignorant view of the past -

Monday, October 20, 2014

Students for Justice in Palestine aims to spread awareness, not argue -

Monday, October 20, 2014

Mending fences: SGA and Amherst officials work together to improve town/gown relations -

Monday, October 20, 2014

UMass men’s soccer drops 5-0 decision to Saint Louis -

Monday, October 20, 2014

The Phablet continues to grow and maintain popularity -

Monday, October 20, 2014

Dayton Flyers soar at Rudd Field, 4-1 over the Minutemen -

Sunday, October 19, 2014

UMass football’s Sharpe continues his banner season in 36-14 win over Eastern Michigan -

Saturday, October 18, 2014

Shadrach Abrokwah has career day in UMass football’s 36-14 win over Eastern Michigan. -

Saturday, October 18, 2014

UMass tops Eastern Michigan 36-14, puts together first FBS winning streak -

Saturday, October 18, 2014

UMass study sheds light on dogs and wolves

OnyxDog86/Flickr

Recent findings by a University of Massachusetts biologist have significantly altered previous understanding of the developmental rifts between the closely related dog and wolf species.

A study conducted by evolutionary biologist Kathryn Lord focused on what sets dogs and wolves apart genetically, according to a press release.

Dogs and wolves are given separate definitions even though they are very physically similar, and both are subspecies of the same taxonomy, Canis lupus. Wolves typically live in the wild, and it is rare that you would find one being kept as a pet. This is the opposite case for dogs, however, as they are much more apt to be animals bred for human companionship.

By comparing the behaviors of wolf and dog pups, in addition to recording their reactions to various stimuli, Lord confirmed that both species develop most of their sensory abilities such as sight, smell and hearing at around the same time, yet it is during the “critical period of socialization” that the two species’ behaviors diverge, according to the release.

According to Lord’s study, both dogs and wolves go through a month-long critical stage of social development, during which they both begin to explore their surroundings and new senses without fear, familiarizing themselves with their surroundings. At the closing of this “socialization window,” new stimuli are likely to elicit a fear response, the release reported, adding that Lord’s study shows that wolves begin this stage of socialization at two weeks of age; dogs do not begin this stage until they have aged at least four weeks.

The release said that though both dogs and wolves develop their sense of smell at two weeks, hearing at four weeks and vision by six weeks, it is due to this critical stage of socialization that essentially separates the two.

Another point discussed in the study is the correlation between the social development of the two species, including the difference in how long it takes for dogs and wolves to learn to walk. Wolf pups are walking on four legs by the time they are two weeks old, still blind and deaf and relying only on their sense of smell. For dogs, the ability to walk only comes after most of their sensory ability has developed. The critical stage of socialization comes concurrently with their ability to walk, according to the release.

“When wolf pups first start to hear, they are frightened of the new sounds initially, and when they first start to see they are also initially afraid of new visual stimuli. As each sense engages, wolf pups experience a new round of sensory shocks that dog puppies do not,” Lord said in the release. This shock for wolves, and the lack thereof for dogs, is what initially sends the two species on different developmental trajectories, ultimately allowing for dogs to have interspecies relationships with humans, according to the release.

Speaking with the genetic implications in mind, Lord said in the release that “the difference may not be in the gene itself, but in when the gene is turned on,” referring to the wolves’ socialization prior to total sensory development, which is innately what keeps them wild. Since dogs’ socialization period comes when they can see, smell and hear that with which they are familiarizing themselves, according to Lord’s research, this ultimately makes them friendlier.

In the course of Lord’s experiments she observed 43 dogs total from two different breeds, in addition to 11 wolf puppies from three different litters, the release said.

“It’s quite startling how different dogs and wolves are from each other at that early age, given how close they are genetically,” Lord said in the release.

George Felder can be reached at gfelder@student.umass.edu

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