July 28, 2014

Scrolling Headlines:

Chiarelli: Sam Koch’s impact evident in those who knew him best -

Monday, July 21, 2014

Longtime UMass men’s soccer coach Sam Koch dies after two-year battle with sinus cancer -

Monday, July 21, 2014

Southwest evacuated after gas leak -

Tuesday, June 17, 2014

UMass Rowing finishes NCAA Championships, ends year ranked No. 21 in the nation -

Sunday, June 1, 2014

Two UMass basketball alums to compete for a lofty prize in The Basketball Tournament -

Friday, May 23, 2014

Commencement Photos 2014 -

Thursday, May 15, 2014

Two arrested in relation to series of vandalism -

Wednesday, May 14, 2014

Students push for relocation of the Center for Counseling and Psychological Health -

Monday, May 12, 2014

Video: No. 14 UMass WLAX ends season in loss to Loyola (MD) -

Saturday, May 10, 2014

No. 14 UMass women’s lacrosse season ends in loss to Loyola (MD) -

Saturday, May 10, 2014

Sixth inning rally propels UMass past Dayton 7-2 -

Wednesday, May 7, 2014

McMahon, Ferris and McGovern: Not your usual transfer story -

Sunday, May 4, 2014

Women’s lacrosse defeats Richmond 10-6 to win sixth straight A-10 Championship -

Sunday, May 4, 2014

No. 13 UMass women’s lacrosse knocks off Duquesne 16-3 to reach Atlantic 10 finals -

Friday, May 2, 2014

UMass one of 55 schools currently facing investigation over handling of sexual assault cases -

Thursday, May 1, 2014

Two thefts reported at library -

Thursday, May 1, 2014

Senior Columns 2013-2014 -

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

UMass Dining proposes major meal plan changes -

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

UMass baseball beats UConn for first time since 2007 -

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

MTV’s seemingly controversial new show proves to be ‘Faking It’ -

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

UMass study sheds light on dogs and wolves

OnyxDog86/Flickr

Recent findings by a University of Massachusetts biologist have significantly altered previous understanding of the developmental rifts between the closely related dog and wolf species.

A study conducted by evolutionary biologist Kathryn Lord focused on what sets dogs and wolves apart genetically, according to a press release.

Dogs and wolves are given separate definitions even though they are very physically similar, and both are subspecies of the same taxonomy, Canis lupus. Wolves typically live in the wild, and it is rare that you would find one being kept as a pet. This is the opposite case for dogs, however, as they are much more apt to be animals bred for human companionship.

By comparing the behaviors of wolf and dog pups, in addition to recording their reactions to various stimuli, Lord confirmed that both species develop most of their sensory abilities such as sight, smell and hearing at around the same time, yet it is during the “critical period of socialization” that the two species’ behaviors diverge, according to the release.

According to Lord’s study, both dogs and wolves go through a month-long critical stage of social development, during which they both begin to explore their surroundings and new senses without fear, familiarizing themselves with their surroundings. At the closing of this “socialization window,” new stimuli are likely to elicit a fear response, the release reported, adding that Lord’s study shows that wolves begin this stage of socialization at two weeks of age; dogs do not begin this stage until they have aged at least four weeks.

The release said that though both dogs and wolves develop their sense of smell at two weeks, hearing at four weeks and vision by six weeks, it is due to this critical stage of socialization that essentially separates the two.

Another point discussed in the study is the correlation between the social development of the two species, including the difference in how long it takes for dogs and wolves to learn to walk. Wolf pups are walking on four legs by the time they are two weeks old, still blind and deaf and relying only on their sense of smell. For dogs, the ability to walk only comes after most of their sensory ability has developed. The critical stage of socialization comes concurrently with their ability to walk, according to the release.

“When wolf pups first start to hear, they are frightened of the new sounds initially, and when they first start to see they are also initially afraid of new visual stimuli. As each sense engages, wolf pups experience a new round of sensory shocks that dog puppies do not,” Lord said in the release. This shock for wolves, and the lack thereof for dogs, is what initially sends the two species on different developmental trajectories, ultimately allowing for dogs to have interspecies relationships with humans, according to the release.

Speaking with the genetic implications in mind, Lord said in the release that “the difference may not be in the gene itself, but in when the gene is turned on,” referring to the wolves’ socialization prior to total sensory development, which is innately what keeps them wild. Since dogs’ socialization period comes when they can see, smell and hear that with which they are familiarizing themselves, according to Lord’s research, this ultimately makes them friendlier.

In the course of Lord’s experiments she observed 43 dogs total from two different breeds, in addition to 11 wolf puppies from three different litters, the release said.

“It’s quite startling how different dogs and wolves are from each other at that early age, given how close they are genetically,” Lord said in the release.

George Felder can be reached at gfelder@student.umass.edu

Leave A Comment